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Type 2 Diabetes

Kunming, China, October 14, 2016

Diabetes mellitus which is a progressive complication of obesity and metabolic syndrome, has been regarded as one of the major global public health problems affecting 371 million people globally. 

Nonhuman primates, particularly macaques are more closely related to man in evolutionary history, genetic makeup, organ system structure and function. As in humans, type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common form of diabetes in NHPs. It occurs more often in older obese animals, and is characterized by a metabolic progression from insulin resistance (IR) and impaired glucose tolerance to overt diabetes. Histopathologic changes in pancreatic islets are also similar to those seen in humans with diabetes. Diabetic NHPs also have adverse changes in plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, biomarkers of obesity, inflammation, and oxidative stress, and protein glycation that contribute to the numerous complications of the disease. Thus, the diabetic macaques are regarded as distinctively valuable models of diabetes and associated complex human disorders with which to explore the pathophysiological pathways and evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of novel and existing pharmacological interventions.

KBI has several colonies of well-characterized naturalistic and HFD-induced diabetic monkeys that are distinctly similar to human diabetics in terms of the disease course and progression that make them ideal translational diabetic disease models for screening the effects of novel and next-generation anti-diabetic agents on glycemic control and in the preservation of β-cell function, as well as, in the prevention/treatment of diabetic complications.

The following cynomolgus monkey models of diabetes as well as, diabetic complications and co-morbidities are available at KBI:

·  Type 2 Diabetes (Naturalistic and Diet-Induced)
·  Diabetic Nephropathy
·  Diabetic Retinopathy
·  Diabetic Neuropathy
·  Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH)
·  Atherosclerosis and Cardiovascular Disease

KBI has more than 1000 diabetic cynomolgus monkeys in different stages of type 2 diabetes and dysmetabolic diseases.  Screening, diagnosis and staging are conducted using any or all of the following available technical platforms for metabolic studies:

·  Food intake, total caloric intake, body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI) measurements
·  Clinical Chemistry Metabolic Profiling
·  Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test (IVGTT)
·  Insulin Tolerance Test (ITT), Oral Lipid Tolerance Test (OLTT) and Meal Tolerance Test (MTT)
·  Graded Glucose Infusion (GGI)
·  Euglycemic clamping
·  GI-bypass and gastric emptying

The KBI proprietary high-fat diet, which is formulated to closely replicate the Western-type diet, has been successfully utilized to develop metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, diabetes and associated co-morbidities in highly diet-responsive colonies of cynomolgus macaques.

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